[The following is a translation of p. 78-79 of the Saint Seiya Encyclopedia. Only words inside the brackets are my comments.]

Having the Ultimate Cosmo, the Supreme Gold Saints

Having the hyper sensory, Seven Senses, the ultimate among the Saints who execute the orders of Sanctuary, wearing Cloths of the 12 Ecliptic Constellations, they are Gold Saints.

    With strict training to explode their Cosmo inside their bodies, the Saints have the ultimate fighting ability with excellent destructive power, but the ones who are at the zenith of the 88 Saints are, the Gold Saints.
    In general, momentum energy is expressed as 'mass times speed squared.' Usually, the Bronze Saints moves at Mach 1, in a matter of seconds, they can launch out 100 punches and the higher ranked Silver Saints can move at Mach 2 to Mach 5. Based on this, we can easily imagine how powerful the punches of Saints are.
    And, the Gold Saints are miraculous fighters who are capable of moving at the speed of light and their punches too are launched at the speed of light! It needs no explaination of how powerful they are.
    The reason why the Gold Cloths can shine are because of the sparkling quality of the materials and the Gold Cloths themselves that contain construction materials that absorb light, making them have a characteristic that can exchange energy.
    Rather this characteristic is attributed to the materials or the construction is not clear but, the total stored potential energy of the 12 Gold Cloths is said to be equal to the Sun.
    Because the stored light of the Cloths are all controlled by the Saint's Cosmo, even if they get to wear the Gold Cloth, if they don't have a high Cosmo, they can't make full use of its ability.
    Let's digress to discuss the recognition of the phenomenon of the Cloths of the 5 Bronze Saints shining with Gold light, as they raised their Cosmo while breaking into Under Sea Temple. [Actually, Ikki's Phoenix Cloth didn't go Gold in the manga. But we do see it as an illustration for Cosmo Special. :)]
    The reason of this is conceived to be because their Cloths was resurrected by the blood of the Gold Saints, in so doing, through the blood, the characteristic of the Gold Cloths spread to the Bronze Cloths.

    How the Cloth's stored energy is released is greatly swayed by each person's own fighting techniques. For some, right in the instant when their punches hits, they changes their mass and gather all the light inside the Cloth.
    Others create destructive power that can crush stars by releasing energy from both their hands. Still others can twist space time, making it possible for them to come and go between alternate worlds. The application of the usage of the Gold Cloths are ever changing.
    The Gold Saints who have the punches of light and armors of light[Hikari no Ken to Hikari no Yoroi] are almost unmatched. It is common for them to act alone in executing orders of Sanctuary. Because of that, often, they don't really see each other. If and when they do meet, usually it means that it is recognized that there is an emergency in their home-base[Head Temple:Souhonzan] of Sanctuary.
    At that time, each Gold Saint would station in their respective 12 Temples, creating an impregnable defense battle array in front of Athena Temple.

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